AN INITIATION INTO SELF-EMPLOYMENT
Mª Luisa Sánchez Almagro, Juan A. Moriano León
and Gerardo Águeda Martín
The interest in entrepreneurship or enterprise emergency has grown
in European countries due to a boom in the local development policies.
These policies are based on the development of resources of the
area in which they are applied. Therefore, there is now a special
necessity to have enterprising people able to risk their own enterprise
projects, and also capable of stirring into action the economic
activity using all the resources.
What does “entrepreneur” mean?, Are they born to be
entrepreneurs, or do they have to learn how to become one?, What
are the personal characteristics of an entrepreneur? Which are the
advantages and disadvantages of being self-employed? Would I be
successful if I set up my own company?. Many people ask themselves
these very questions when they think about starting up a company
and being self-employed.
In this chapter we try to answer these questions by exploring the
main characteristics around setting up companies, and their actors:
- To identify the main aspects of the entrepreneurial work.
- To transmit the importance of being an entrepreneur.
- To eradicate stereotypes about entrepreneurs.
2. ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYMENT
Work is the conscious activity of the man in which he intelligently
uses his physical and mental strength to reach his own interests,
and those of his community. The person contributes to this process
with resources (technical, energy, knowledge...) and gets some material,
psychological, and/or social compensation. From this definition,
you can deduce that there are some jobs without remuneration, like
unpaid voluntary work, or the traditional work many women have carried
out at home. Therefore, the way we distinguish the paid jobs from
the others is calling the former employment.
Working population (Figure 1) is made up by the occupied ones plus
those who want to work but are not able to (unemployed). The economically
inactive population is made up of students, housewives, retirees,
and those people who do not work simply because they do not want
to or do not need to.
People over the age of
People under the age of 18
Economically active population
Economically inactive population
Diagram 1. Economic structure of
Let us list the types of job people around you have:
The State in the developed economies has a regulating role. It
is in charge of improving the collective goods (roads, hydroelectric
power stations, parks, etc.), the public order and army resources,
so as to improve social security and people’s standard of
living. These services have been an important source of jobs during
many years, although now, it is just playing a supporting role.
The European Union is a free-market economy. The economies based
on this system present a high degree of decentralization. The market
is free, and the competition that exists between the companies and
the differences between consumers directly influence prices. That
is to say that the law of supply and demand1
rules the economy. Although big companies have mass production,
they are reducing at the same time the number of workers because
of new technologies. In addition, big companies have problems to
adapt to market changes. Small and medium-sized companies have greater
For the moment, governments and big companies do not seem to be
able to revitalize the economy alone. Therefore, we cannot believe
that they will provide most of the new jobs that will have to be
created. We, the individuals, will be mainly responsible for the
economic development that will be transformed into social welfare.
On the other hand, many people have difficulties to find a job,
but there is a great diversity of jobs. Work does not only means
employment; it is much more than that.
You will find next, a description of different kinds of jobs:
- Dependent work: a working activity. It is
private, if you work for a company, and public if you work as
a civil servant.
- Self-employment: you are self-employed.
- Voluntary work: an activity for which you
do not get money, really interesting for society.
- Personal and familiar work: housework, artistic
Let us detail activities carried out in those four kinds of work:
On the other hand, it is interesting to compare the characteristics
of the different employment sectors.
- You must usually pass exams/ competitions.
- It guarantees employment continuity.
- Professional promotion has a slow development.
- Wages are not very high.
- Working conditions are attractive (no split shifts, long
- There is a selection process (CV, interview, tests...)
- First contracts are usually term contracts.
- Even a contract without closing date does not guarantee
the continuity of employment.
- Professional promotion also depends on the type of company.
- Wages can be very high if the person reaches a management
- Working conditions are not as attractive as in a state
- There is no previous selection process.
- It does not guarantee employment continuity.
- here is no professional promotion, but more responsibilities.
- wages depend on the business development and profits.
- Working conditions are free.
Chart 1. Comparison between the public, private
and self-employed sectors
(Ballesteros, Guillamón Manzano, Moriano and Palací,
We have analysed the different types of jobs and working sectors.
Next we are going to focus on one type of job: self-employment.
3. MYTHS AND BARRIERS FOR SELF-EMPLOYMENT
The metaphors are descriptors of behaviour games, more useful
than literal expressions in that case to show us what people think
about the entrepreneurial relationship and the entrepreneurs. In
that way, Koiranen (1995) studied the expressions2
used by people to qualify an entrepreneur.
As a self-reflection exercise, read the following metaphors and
if you agree with those words that identify an entrepreneur, tick
the box. In addition, write down the reason why you chose it.
|1. He/She is a creative worker: captain, self-made
man, an artist, a leader, a sailor, and a moneymaker.
|2. He or she has a special characteristic: he or she is precocious,
solitaire, defenceless, independent, manipulative, ambitious,
|3. He/ she is a machine: a human machine, a PC, a battery,
a generator, a ferry, a motor, a locomotive . . .
|4. He/ she is a sportsman/ sportswoman: an acrobat, a pilot,
a superman, and a long-distance runner…
|5. He/ she is of a special constitution: an eager beaver,
a fox, a lion, a chameleon, a seven-lives cat, a squid, a cuckoo,
a rolling stone, an eddy.
|6. He/she is an adventurer: a warrior or a fighter, a superman,
Columbus, a tough guerrilla, …
|7. He/ she is a miscellaneous person: a monster, a mainstay
of the society, a community support…
|I have chosen number ....... because.............. .............................
In the process of setting up companies, entrepreneurship is, according
to Drucker (1986), something like being a doctor or an engineer.
It demands knowledge, abilities, attitudes, aptitudes, attributes,
etc., but specially work in order to manage the training and development
required by the process. Nevertheless, like in any other field of
human action there are several false clichés about the entrepreneur,
which have become barriers to set up a new business. Ronstadt (1984),
Lee-Gosselin and Grisé (1987), Gasse and D' Amours (1993),
Ripollés (1994) and Nueno (1997), Varela (1998) and Colomer
et al. (2000) have done research on this matter. These barriers
can be: principal, psychological and cultural barriers:
Think about it: why don’t you have already set up your company?
What were the impediments?
Next, review what kind of barriers are restraining you, and write
down solutions to overcome them. This activity can be made in small
|There is a lack of entrepreneurship
"All you need is luck"
"Successful managers had the good fortune to find a
"It is necessary to wait for a good opportunity".
An analysis of factors process is essential in order to
be in the right place at the right moment, and to take your
You have to make an appreciation of the events and tendencies,
to prepare yourself to take action, so as to take advantage
of the good periods and minimize the impact of bad ones. In
a few words, it is necessary to have entrepreneurship, there
is no place for luck.
|A Lack of money
"All you need is money".
"Without money you cannot set up a company".
"You cannot get any money if you do not have personal
fortune as a guarantee".
This is one of the most common excuses.
Nowadays, one of the most important managerial ability is
to identify and obtain resources. Researches all over the
world have proved generally, most businessmen needed very
little money when they started their business. The money came
from their own savings, from friends, and from family resources.
"Businessmen do not have qualifications"
"Businessmen are failures"
"To set up companies it is necessary to be an inventor
or work in advanced technology"
"It is necessary to study at the University to be able
to understand how a company works "
The future entrepreneur has to be a qualified businessman. Not
in determined subjects but with a wide basic training. If they
do not, they will have very little chances of success or growth.
|Lack of knowledge of the sector
"Only people with experience can be businessmen ".
" First, it is necessary to be an employee, and learn
how the business works. Next, you can set up your own business
with your knowledge on this area "
|In magazines that deal with business and entrepreneurship,
we can find many examples of entrepreneurs without experience,
even without having been employees. Some of them are very young:
college or university students. There are certain advantages
on starting a managerial process when you are young and very
few people over fifty set up businesses.
"Being a businessman lower my professional status
"An entrepreneur is a rebel "
|Many successful entrepreneurs before they set up their own
business worked as employees for bigger companies. Therefore,
shouldn’t have those companies held them back and taken
advantage of their creative capacity?
|Distrust of the close environment
"It is impossible to become a businessman unless
you can rely on comprehension of the people that surround
"The country situation does not allow new business creation".
|On the contrary, only if we set up companies, work and wealth
will improve the environmental conditions to reinforce the entrepreneurial
Write down solutions that may help you overcome
the former barriers.
|Lack of firmness
"Businessmen are born, you cannot learn how to become
a businessman ".
"True businessmen are special people. They are born
to be so.”
|Being a businessman implies a few attributes and some knowledge,
which you have to learn; you do not inherit them. Therefore,
there are different state, regional, municipal plans aimed at
helping the creation of new companies.
|The first stepd are hard
" During the first months of a new business, there
are only losses ".
" Nearly all business fail rapidly ".
|The fact is that any investment includes some risks, and certainty
does not exist in the business world.
|Woman, youth, unemployed people
|" The creation of a company is a men's matter.”
A businesswoman has the same problems as if she was an employee.
The positive motivations to set her own business are: to have
a job suited to her abilities or qualifications, to make her
dream come true, and to improve her self-esteem.
“Businessmen do not analyse, they only act”
. "The creation of a company is like playing the lottery,
you do not know what is going to happen until you run the
"A job is safer than a business”
"The creation of a company is riskier than being an
|The truth is quite different. Businessmen, being successful
during a relatively long period, analyse very well their opportunities
evaluating them. They compare the planned results to their objectives,
and assess their movements carefully before acting,
|Capitalism / Anti-capitalism.
|" I will be rich with my first business ".
||Ronstadt (1984) calls it "the Beginning of
the Runner ". Some veteran businessmen impress us so much
that we ask ourselves: how can they do it?, where do they get
so many ideas?. The answer is that any business generates multiple
options and facilitates the entrepreneur’s expansion.
|"A businessman is not an ethical person ".
"I cannot set up a company with my profession.”
"A company is something very complicated ".
The notion of dependence has led us to believe that professions
aims at occupying job positions or employments. Any professional
can identify many ways of action and choose among them the one
that is more suitable for him or her. You can set up a company
of any kind.
Write down solutions that may help you overcome
the former barriers.
4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SELF-EMPLOYMENT
Now it would be advisable to decide what are the goals you would
like to reach in your company. Once you find them, you will be able
to start seeking them to get them.
Each person has a different view on life and different expectations
of what the company is going to provide them after its creation.
You may answer the following questions so as to identify the objectives
you are looking for and understand better the reasons why you want
be the owner of a company.
- Would an entrepreneurial career help me to reach these aims?
- Am I going to enjoy this work?
- Do I like to make deals, to be the manager or to develop new
- Can I do it by myself against the other people’s opinion?
- Do I like to control everything and to take full responsibility
for what could happen?
Write a brief story, taking into account the previous aspects
or others you would like to add, on the problems and advantages
you foresee could happen when you become a businessperson.
If you do not already know the managerial world enough and cannot
answer the previous exercise, ask some businessmen questions like:
what problems did you have? What problems do you have now? How did
you manage to set up your business? What do you like and dislike
about being a manager? In what way did the setting-up affect you
and your family?. With these questions, you can know the advantages
and disadvantages related to the creation of a new business. With
them as well, you can decide if you have enough will to set up the
company and to keep it operating.
Interview an entrepreneur classifying his commentaries about his
managerial career and divide them into advantages and disadvantages.
Angel Andrés member of the SECOT3
summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of being a businessman
- They enjoyed the satisfaction of being their own boss.
- There is no direct supervision.
- They have a better control over the working schedule.
- They can improve far more quickly their income and prestige.
- They create jobs for other people and for them.
- · More responsibility.
- They work for many hours and intensively.
- They lost the security that a worker has.
- Total dedication to the business and to the clients
- They have much more stress.
- They take more risks and have great uncertainty.
In a group, think about the aspects in which you agree with businessmen
and the SECOT. A Phillips 6:6 group dynamics could be useful.
Lambing & Kuehl (1997) think that every self-employed person
must be aware of the future advantages and disadvantages before
initiating a business. (Figure 2).
Diagram 2. Advantages and disadvantages of the self-employed (Lambing
and Kuehl, 1997, p. 16).
- Autonomy: Some people need independence
and freedom to decide their own alternatives. The feeling
of being their own boss is very satisfactory for them.
- The challenge of setting up a business / Need of
achievement: For many self-employed people the challenge
of setting up a business stimulates them. The opportunity
to develop their idea and then to turn it into a successful
business gives them a feeling of achievement. The self-employed
person knows that he or she is the main person in charge of
the success of the business.
- Financial control: Some businessmen do
not search for big benefits with their company; what they
really want is to have control on their financial situation.
They do not like to have a boss that tells them that they
are dismissed without previous notice and after having devoted
some years to work in the company.
Self-employment is one of the most difficult careers that exist.
This is one of the great disadvantages, but there are others:
- Personal Sacrifices: Especially at the
beginning of the managerial activity. The self-employed person
can even devote the whole week to work, without any leisure
time or personal life. That usually generates tense family
- Responsibility: The self-employed person
is the highest person in charge of the company’s progress,
unlike the workers. Staff in companies is usually surrounded
with people of the same status and with the same worries and
they share information. Thus they share fellowship feelings
as well. However, the boss is always alone.
On the other hand, whereas the staff are specialized in a
few certain areas, for example in trade, in finances, in personnel...,
the self-employed people must handle all the functions until
the business really works.
- Small Benefit Margin: These small businesses
usually introduce new products that are generally not accepted
or go through non-profit periods. As the profit margin is
not usually immediate and a certain period of time is necessary
to obtain some benefits they may close down.
5. SORTS OF SELF-EMPLOYMENT
There are reasons to set up our own business but also barriers,
but if we decide to start up one, it is essential to be entrepreneurial
to look for opportunities and have will to face the problems. You
can start up an individual business or a partnership. We can classify
the different types self-employment into: freelance, teleworking,
associated work, autonomous work and franchises.
|This worker provides his or her services to a
company without being part of its staff. We could say he or
she makes up a micro company.
- Major flexibility
- Great independence
- They obtain better income than those who belong to the
- They need to create a network of contacts that favour
their opportunities and presence on the market.
- They need to expand the sectors of activity.
|The worker does not carry out his or her work
in the company’s premises.
- It saves on money by reducing fixed costs.
- It saves on time and money by avoiding going to work.
- Flexibility company / worker
- You do not get in touch with colleagues.
- The managerial culture breaks.
- Motivation can diminish.
|A self-employed who, obviously, does not work
for a company.
- It is the cheapest way to become independent.
- If there is any problem they are responsible for everything
with all their personal assets
- They cannot have unemployment subsidies.
|You decide to start a business with partners.
- The company’s liability is exclusively with the
- Functions can be distributed among the associates.
- The functions of each partner must be very clear.
- An initial capital is necessary to start up the business.
|It is the least risky type of self-employment.
It consists on a collaboration system between a company, which
is the parent company (franchiser) and many other future companies
(franchisee), by means of which the franchiser yields the mark,
product or service to the franchisee.
- The franchisees are protected by the whole net and especially
have at their disposal a proven experience, a style, and
an important trademark image.
- · You must have your own resources.
- You have to obey the global actions of the franchiser.
Look for information in magazines, at fairs … for entrepreneurs.
Make a list with the forms of self-employment you would direct your
enterprising career to.
6. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENTREPRENEUR
One of the basic questions, although difficult to answer, is what
is an entrepreneur? In the literature on this term, it seems to
be no agreement on its definition. Thus, Palmer (1971), Drucker
(1991), Ginsberg and Buchholtz, (1989), and Chell, Haworth and Brearley
(1991) only agree on one aspect: from the moment someone decides
to become an entrepreneur, he or she has to put his or her imagination
in motion, make an effort to discover any opportunity and transform
it into his or her business.
Kilby (1971,18) establishes a comparison between the search of
the definition of “entrepreneur” and the hunting of
a fictitious animal, named Heffalump. In this children’s story
of Winnie Puh of A.A. Milne the heffalump is said to be “quite
a big animal. Many hunters who had previously used traps chase this
animal, but none succeeds in capturing it. Those who have seen it
say it is enormous, but they differ on its particular features.
Some hunters, although they have not explored its habitat sufficiently,
try to convince people that they have caught it with their better
baits. Nevertheless, very few hunters are convinced that it was
a Heffalump and the search continues”.
The definition of “entrepreneur” resents the same problem
as that of the story. The entrepreneur’s characteristics are
many-sided. For its classification, we will use the structure of
Sánchez Almagro (2003) (Chart 3).
| 1. MOTIVATING FACTORS
- Need of achievement *
- Need of recognition
- Need of personal development
- Collection of the profits
- Low need of power and status
- Need of independence *
- Need of affiliation or help other people
- Need of escape, refuge or subsistence *
| 2. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
- Initiative taking*
- Capacity of decision
- Accepts moderate risks *
- Orientated towards the opportunity *
- Emotional Stability / auto control
- Orientation towards specific goals
- Locus of internal control (They attribute to
themselves their successes or failures) *
- Tolerance ambiguity / pressure / uncertainty
- Receptive in their social relations
- Sense of urgency / valuable time
- Honesty / Integrity and confidence
- Perseverance / total Commitment *
- Personal Responsibility
- Individualist *
|3. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
|4. INTELLECTUAL CHARACTERISTICS
- Versatility / Flexibility
- Creativity / Imagination / Innovation *
- Search of the truth and information
- Planning and systematic follow-up of the results
- Aptitude to analyse the environment (reflection)
- Comprehensive Vision of the problems
- Ability to solve problems
- Planning with limits of time
- Orientation to the client
- Aptitude to obtain resources *
- Manager / manager of resources
- Boss of factors of production
- Demands efficiency and quality
- Direction and management of the company *
- Contact network
- Communication *
Chart 3. Characteristics of the
People decide to become self-employed for several reasons: to make
or sell a certain product or service, because their family members
are entrepreneurs, to be independent, to be his or her own boss,
to earn more money than being an employee, to try something new,
to set up their own business, and get out of unemployment.
What are your reasons to set up your own company?
According to Moriano & Palací (2003) it is possible
to classify the entrepreneurs into two groups depending on the motivations
that lead them to set up their own business or to work independently:
- "Vocational" entrepreneurs: those
people who feel the impulse, the illusion and the dream of setting
up their own company. They have a high achievement motivation
that induces them to take risks, and to set increasingly challenging
- "Situational" entrepreneurs: those
who set up their own company to escape from a precarious job or
forced by the circumstances. Self-employment would be for them
a shelter that allows them to have a job to earn an honest living.
Generally, both his or her personal characteristics and his or
her environment determine the characteristics of the entrepreneur.
Among the social aspects related to self-employment, the role played
by both the family and friends stands out since they provide the
support needed by the entrepreneur. Besides, if some members of
the family or friends have their own business or have set up their
own company, the entrepreneur can imitate these models. The characteristics
of the entrepreneur, at a personal level, are that they are convinced
they have control on their own destiny (locus of internal control),
that they are able to take risks, and that they can recognize opportunities.
At the beginning of any new managerial adventure, the entrepreneur
needs to make quick decisions, to have a suitable level of self-control
and self-confidence. However, in order that his or her company prospers
and grows, he or she has to be enthusiastic about what she or he
is doing, invest more energy, and improve constantly his or her
Entrepreneurs usually admit that training is essential for the
success of a new company. Nevertheless, the advisers of the SECOT
recommend the new entrepreneurs to have training and “get
experience as an employee before starting a business".
Taking into account your characteristics as an entrepreneur, write
down the advantages and disadvantages (personal, professional and
economic) to carry out the chosen activity.
Definitively, it is important to analyse all these aspects to establish
the necessary strategies in order to adapt our personal profile
to the activity of our managerial career.
7. SORTS OF ENTREPRENEURS
According to Gerber (1997), comparing entrepreneurs with managers
and technicians working for a company, he appreciates the following
basic differences (Chart 4):
To control the flow of their own work
Chart 4.- Differences between
the professional roles (Gerber,1997).
Entrepreneurs orientate their thoughts towards the future, since
they are capable of imagining whether a certain opportunity or idea
will turn into a successful business. The need of control stems
from the same orientation towards the future, since they need to
control the resources to make their dreams come true.
On the other hand, entrepreneurs do not worry about changes. On
the contrary, they are catalysts for change. As Schumpeter (1951)
indicates, the entrepreneur acts to distort a situation of existing
balance. He is located as an initiator of the change and a generator
of new opportunities. The entrepreneur appears on the market as
a force that breaks the balance, though every entrepreneurial activity
generates a new situation of balance.
The executive, agent or manager is characterized by his pragmatism.
His managerial conduct focuses on planning, order and predictability.
His temporary orientation is located in the past, because the work
of the executive is aimed to support the stability of the company.
The executive tends to be more reactive than proactive. He does
not want to change things, but to manage the company effectively
in order to achieve the biggest benefit. Therefore, innovation would
not exist without entrepreneurs, whereas business would not exist
Technicians focus on performing any specific task. For this reason,
their temporary orientation is the present. Technicians consider
great ideas must be reduced to methodology in order to have a real
value. Technicians desire is to focus on their own work and to be
able to have control on how to do it. Their favourite motto would
be " if you want something done, do it yourself ". Moriano,
Palací & Trejo (2001) gather (Chart 5) the main differences
between the entrepreneur and the technician, following the directives
of Gerber (1997).
||How does a company have to work?.
||What task must be performed?
||A system to produce relevant results that will become one
A place where people work to produce internal results as income.
||An image of the future, to return afterwards to the present
with the intention of changing it and then to adapt it to their
vision. The current world is modelled depending on their vision.
||They focus on the present. When they look to an uncertain
future, they hope to maintain it as similar to the present as
possible. The future is modelled according to the present world.
||Wide and expansive.
||Reduced scale, inhibited and confined to the work that has
to be done.
||The form of the business.
||What is done in the business.
||What is submitted to the buyer.
Chart 5 .- Differences between
Gerber's technical and enterprising perspective (Moriano, Palací
& Trejo, 2001, 238).
According to Gerber (1997), every businessperson has something
of an entrepreneur, of an executive, and of a technician. If these
parts are perfectly balanced, we would have a competent person who
would take his or her company to the highest possible position.
Nevertheless, this author affirms that the "common owner of
a small business has only 10 % of entrepreneur, 20 % of executive
and 70 % of technician". (Gerber, 1997, 38).
Read the following statements carefully and tick those that match
with the way you would like to organize your own company and with
your motivations. I am a person:
- ( ) with a high need of achievement. I plan and set goals on
my own initiative, I think I will acquire a strong commitment
to my organization. I am sure the success of my company will depend
on me and I think that the strategy of my company must be guided
depending on my personal goals and not on goals others suggested.
- ( ) that I understand other people and I can make myself understood.
I want to help others. I am sure that the social processes are
very important. I have positive relations with my environment
and I base the strategy of my company on the force of the sales.
- ( ) that I want to be the corporate leader, I support a positive
relation with the authorities. I think that the strategy of the
company must be guided by means of a strong desire for competing
and to stand out on the others.
- ( ) that I have a strong desire of innovation, I accept moderated
risks to compensate the enthusiasm of my ideas, and I think that
a company’s strategy is based on the development of a new
Miner (1996a, b) thinks that the entrepreneur must combine several
of the dimensions of his or her capacity of organization (executive,
strategic, leadership and innovation) with the motivations that
lead him to creation (achievement, power, affiliation). This combination
will be the cause of his or her success or failure when he or she
set up his or her own company.
Look for the type of businessperson you want to be.
Capacity of organization.
Personal Achiever (energetic, flexible, they set
Expert Idea Generator
(They avoid taking risks)
(They want to stand out, to compete)
Empathic Supersales PersonType
Chart 6. Entrepreneurs' categories,
according to Miner (1996) 5
in Sánchez Almagro (2003)
There are as many reasons to consider seriously the alternative
of setting up a company, as to consider the contrary situation.
Everything depends on the person’s will and motivation. In
any case, being your own boss allow you to have a job in the activity
that you really want, to work with the people you need, and it can
also be a way of earning your living and be successful. Actually,
you have more responsibilities and your office hours do not have
any limit, but you are also more satisfied. The essential thing
is to have initiative to look for opportunities and face the problems.
Therefore, any person can set up a new company or start a business.
What is difficult is to keep this company operating and obtain profit.
Therefore, it is important not to be afraid of being your own boss
nor consider it an easy task.
We think that the key steps are to have a good business idea, to
plan your business, and to carry it out. It is important that every
person chooses the form of self-employment that better matches his
or her personal and professional interests. You will need some of
the abilities given along this chapter to succeed. For example,
aptitude to take risks, recognition of opportunities, resilience
to adversity and self-confidence.
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1 Demand refers to the different quantities
of a product or service that the companies will want and will be
able to purchase, depending on the price and during a given period
to the different quantities of a product or service that
the companies (manufacturers) want and are able to offer the
community (consumers) depending on the different prices during
a given period of time.
The rule of supply and demand indicates that the market balances
between the interests of the producers and the consumers.
2 The metaphors may serve to carry
out multi-cultural studies so that they let us know what the different
cultures mean for entrepreneur (Anglo-Saxon, European, Latin, Japanese...).
3 Spanish seniors for the Technical
Cooperation (SECOT) is a Spanish association that gives free advice
to entrepreneurs http: // www.secot.org. The conclusions belong
to the interview held in this institution in February 2002, during
the first cross-national meeting of Luces project.
4 These conclusions stem from the
interview with the parent company Yves Rocher held in Spain on March
5 In the entrepreneurs' typology
the English terms have been translated into Spanish as follows:
Personal Achiever Type for Conquistador personal, Real Manager Type
for Gerente real, Expert Idea Generator Type for Innovador and Empathic
Supersalesperson Type for Comerciante.